KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT MEKANIK SERAT SABUT KELAPA(cocos nucifera) HASIL PERLAKUAN KIMIA

Muhammad, Arsyad Habe (2015) KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT MEKANIK SERAT SABUT KELAPA(cocos nucifera) HASIL PERLAKUAN KIMIA. Doctoral thesis, State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang.

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Bab 1. Pendahuluan.pdf

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Bab 2. Kajian Pustaka.pdf

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Abstract

Development of science and technology so rapidly, including the field of material technology, the natural fiber that was not utilized can be processed into engineering materials. Advantages possessed by natural fibers such abundant,environmentally friendly, low production costs, and elastic. A lot of natural fibers used as a reinforcing material or filler composites are: sisal, flex, hemp, jute, hemp, coconut fiber. In order to composite natural fibers have the strength to be several factors that need to be considered, namely (1) the bonding between the surface of the fibers with the matrix, (2) how to arrange of the fibers, (3) the elasticity modulus of the fiber used has higher than the matrix. Coconut fiber surface which contains many impurities will affect the fiber bonding process with matrix. Therefore, modification of the fiber surface treatment should be considered to improve the strength composite fiber. One method to remove impurities on the fiber surface is chemical treatment process. As described above, which are at problems are (1) how the treatment effect of NaOH, NaOH and KMnO4, and NaOH and KMnO4 and H2O2 to form the surface morphology coconut fiber, (2) the influence of NaOH, NaOH and KMnO4, and NaOH and KMnO4 and H2O2 on the ability of the bonding between the coconut fiber with polyester matrix. Coconut fiber was treated by three kind of treatments. First treatment that coconut fiber treated respectively N1 (NaOH 5%), N2 (NaOH 10%), N3 (NaOH 15%), and N4 (NaOH 20%) for 3 hours. After the first treatment, coconut fiber is dried in an oven at a temperature of 90°C for 5 hours. After it is cooled at room temperature. The second treatment are coconut fiber treated respectively (NaOH 5% then KMnO4 0,25%), K2 (NaOH 10% then KMnO4 0,5%), K3 (NaOH 15% then KMnO4 0,75%), and K4 (NaOH 20% then KMnO4 1,0%) for 3 hours. After the second treatment, coconut fiber is dried in an oven at a temperature of 90°C for 5 hours. After it is cooled at room temperature. The third treatment are coconut fiber treated respectively H1 (NaOH 5% then KMnO4 0,25% then H2O2 5%), H2 (NaOH 10% then KMnO4 0,5% then H2O2 10%), H3 (NaOH 15% then KMnO4 0,75% then H2O2 15%), and H4 (NaOH 20% then KMnO4 1,0% then H2O2 20%) for 3 hours. After soaking, coconut fiber is then dried in an oven at a temperature of 90°C for 5 hours. After it is cooled at room temperature. Single fiber tensile testing, and single fiber pull out is done by using a tensile test Testometric M500-25CT DBBMTCL 2500 kg ROCHDALE ENGLAND. Tensile testing was done in two stages. Single fiber tensile testing, and testing single fiber pull out with the pull rate of 1 mm/min at 2 mm depth of fiber embeded. The form of the fiber and matrix morphology bonding examined using an scanning electron microscope (SEM) at a voltage of 5kV Vega3 Tescan. Alkali treatment resulted in lignin, and cellulose decreased compared with coconut fiber without treatment. Coconut fiber lignin content without treatment 33,5% was reduced to 6.1% due to the N4 treatment (20% NaOH), while the cellulose content of 37,9% in the untreated coconut fiber was reduced to 22.0% in the treatment N4. This means alkali treatment are decrease of lignin and cellulose, the higher of alkali solution concentration the lower of lignin and cellulose content. Decreased levels of lignin and cellulose such as able to penetrate and destroy lignin, and cellulose. Coconut fiber highest tensile strength obtained when the low lignin content of 6.1% due to the N4 treatment obtained coconut fiber largest tensile stress is 280.94 MPa. In addition, alkali treatment will destroy hydrogen bonds, and clean the fibers from dirt and oil so that the surface of the fiber becomes rougher. Alkali treatment also led to an increase in crystallization index than the coconut fiber without treatment (60.14%), but the crystallization index decreased with increasing levels of alkali concentration, 62.33% in the treatment N1 be 45.09% on the N4 treatment. Crystallization index declines due to the reduced content of cellulose, cellulose which is a compound of crystallization. While the treatment of potassium permanganate, crystallization disappears, it appears on the surface topography of fibers and form the diffraction curves tend straight. The crystallization changes indicate that potassium permanganate solution can dissolve the alkali so different form the fiber surface roughness with alkali treatment. Potassium permanganate causes grooves such as trenches, and the presence of protrusions on the surface of the fiber. Grooves can facilitate matrix to fill the grooves so that it can improve the ability of bonding between the fibers with the matrix. While the hydrogen peroxide treatment, the surface of the fibers arise patches covering the grooves before but can not increase the tensile strength fibers tend to fall with increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. This happens because the patches are not able to fill up with good grooves on previous treatment. At the time of the fiber grown in the matrix, the crystals will react with the matrix and form a stronger bond than the other treatments that have large crystals and less sturdy. So at this first treatment, the shear stress obtained the highest average on the N4 treatment is 3.1 N/mm2. The crystals that occur in the first treatment disappeared when the fiber is soaked in a solution of KMnO4, it is mean sodium dissolved in a solution of potassium permanganate. The second effect of this treatment, the surface of the fiber appears bulges and grooves on the fiber, the higher the percentage, the greater the concentration of a solution of protrusions and grooves are formed and tend to be straight. However, the strength of the bonding between the fiber and the matrix is not directly proportional to the magnitude of the bulge and a great groove. Therefore, great grooves and straight it will facilitate the release of fibers from the matrix because of the grip that held the matrix is so low that the average shear stress obtained is very low. Average shear stress is highest in the second treatment was obtained at treatment K2 is 2.82 N/mm2, although protrusions and grooves are formed is not great but branched, it forms such a matrix capable of providing a strong grip on the fiber. While the fiber surface topography due to the third treatment form grooves that will give stranglehold little stronger than the large grooves, so the H2 treatment provides the highest engagement between the treatment that has been given to the fiber is 4.1 N/mm2. Based on the testing that has been done, the coconut fiber treatment with NaOH solution, KMnO4, and H2O2 can change the shape of the surface topography of coconut fiber becomes more rough, porous, or grooved so as to improve of bonding of coconut fiber with polyester matrix. NaOH treatment to reduce levels of lignin and cellulose causes crystallization on the surface of the fiber, while the NaOH treatment, KMnO4, and H2O2 resulted in a groove like trench on the surface of coconut fiber. The highest shear stress is obtained in the treatment of H2 is 4.1 N/mm2, while the highest tensile stress obtained in N4 treatment is 280.94 N/mm2

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Department of Mechanical Engineering > Teknik Otomotif
Depositing User: Dr. Ir. Muhammad Arsyad, M.T.
Date Deposited: 19 Jan 2017 01:26
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2017 06:46
URI: http://repository.poliupg.ac.id/id/eprint/219

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